The policies relating to language pursued by European monarchies and states have been widely studied, but far less attention has been given to their linguistic and cultural policies in territories outside their own borders. This volume takes an interdisciplinary approach to filling that gap, distinguishing and analysing several different types of linguistic and foreign cultural policies. Such policies, the contributors show, tended not to be proclaimed officially, but they nonetheless had lasting effects on both language and culture in Europe and beyond.
Karène Sanchez Summerer is Associate Professor at Leiden University. Her scholarly interests include the French linguistic and cultural policy in the Levant, the educational impacts of French and British missions in the Middle East, and the relations between language and religion in the Middle Eastern nationalism and identity building processes (mid 19th-mid 20th centuries).
Willem Frijhoff is Emeritus Professor of Modern History at VU University, Amsterdam, and is now G.Ph. Verhagen Professor of Cultural History at Erasmus University, Rotterdam. His scholarly work focuses on cultural, linguistic and religious identities in early modern France, the Netherlands and North America.