Disinfection of Wastewater Effluent—Comparison of Alternative Technologies
Lawrence Y. C. Leong
OverviewThere is a tremendous amount of literature on and experience with wastewater disinfection alternative. However, it is difficult for wastewater professionals to sift through all of the available information, especially for relatively newer technologies. In addition, there are many factors, some of them site-specific, that influence whether a facility changes disinfection practice, and which alternative it chooses. There are few resources that provide a comprehensive discussion of decision factors with a direct comparison of the disinfection alternatives.
This project developed a singular document that presents the pros and cons and costs of the various technical options for wastewater disinfection. The resulting report is intended to be utilized by wastewater professionals to help evaluate and select the appropriate technology for their application. This report presents a review of the existing literature, a survey of disinfection practice by major POTWs, and surveys of facilities with UV and ozone systems. The known advantages and disadvantages of the mature technologies (chlorine, UV, and ozone), other technologies, and combinations of multiple disinfection alternatives are summarized. The report synthesizes this information and presents a coherent method for selecting a disinfection technology, based on individual priorities and criteria. Finally, the report identifies data gaps that would benefit from additional research.