Arcler Education Inc
Pests and plant interaction is a dynamic system, which is beyond our Imaginations and thoughts in the universe. Plants and insects are highly diverse groups due to their ability to exploit a wide range of niches, from the desert to the arctic zone and also almost all the plant species growing on the planet. Plants and insects make up together approximately half of all known species of multicellular organisms. Each plant interacts with insects in a different manner; insects may act as protection, dispersers, or fertilizers for plants while plants may be a food/energy resource or nest location for insects. In an environment with changing availability and quality of host plants, phytophagous insects are under selection pressure to find quality hosts. They need to maximize their fitness by locating suitable plants and avoiding unsuitable ones. Thus, they have evolved a finely tuned sensory system, for detection of host cues, and a nervous system, capable of integrating inputs from sensory neurons with a high level of spatio-temporal resolution. Insect responses to cues are not fixed but depend on the context in which they are perceived, the physiological state of the insect, and prior learning experiences. However, there are examples of insects making ‘mistakes’ and being attracted to poor quality hosts. While insects have evolved ways of finding hosts, plants have been under selection pressure to do precisely the opposite and evade detection or defend themselves when attacked. Once on the plant, insect-associated molecules may trigger or suppress defence depending on whether the plant or the insect is ahead in evolutionary terms. Plant volatile emission is influenced by defence responses induced by insect feeding or oviposition which can attract natural enemies but repel herbivores. Conversely, plant reproductive fitness is increased by attraction of pollinators. Interactions can be altered by other organisms associated with the plant such as other insects, plant pathogens, or mycorrhizal fungi. Plant phenotype is plastic and can be changed by epigenetic factors in adaptation to periods of biotic stress. Space and time play crucial roles in influencing the outcome of interactions between insects and plants. This book has been designed to suit the knowledge and pursuit of the researcher and scholars and to empower them with various aspects of plant-pest interactions, so that they are updated with the information. I hope that the readers find the book explanatory and insightful and that this book is referred by the scholars across various fields.
Dr. Kiran Abasaheb More, born in Bhogaon (Devi) Tahsil Jintur of Parbhani district of Maharashtra, India, in 1978, completed M.Sc in Botany, at Shree Shivaji College Parbhani, Maharashtra, Affiliated with Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University Nanded, Maharashtra. The author also completed his Ph.D in 2010 in field of Taxonomy of Angiosperms and he joined the department of Botany, Yashwantrao Chavan Arts and Science Mahavidyalaya, Mangrulpir as an Assistant Professor. He is the Chief Editor of Research Journal Multilogic in science (Journal for Applied science), He edited more than 35 issues of research journals and authored 25 research papers. Dr. More is awarded by Young scientist award of Science and tech society for Integrated ruler improvement Telangana , and also awarded by Excellence in Teaching GENESIS ARBAN &RULER DEVOLOPMENT SOCIETY at the occasion of ICAAASTSD International conference 2018. He is the editor of proceeding of International conference on Advances in Agriculture and Allied science technologies for sustainable Development Society Special issue Jan 2018 and he is a Life Member of “GUARD Society”. He also chaired a number of National and International Conferences, he is also a Member of Botany teacher association of Sant Gadge baba Amravati University Amravati, Maharashtra, India.