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Criminal Forensics

Marko Nikolić

383 pages
Arcler Education Inc
This book will start with analyses of 60 different models in an attempt to uncover how numerous DBF (Database Forensics) activities are really public even when the actions vary. First chapter generated a unified abstract view of DBF in the form of a metamodel. It identified, extracted, and proposed a common concept reconciled concept definitions to propose a metamodel.Authors applied a metamodelling process to guarantee that this metamodel is comprehensive and consistent. In chapter 2 we will be discussing forensic assessments as a phenomena predominantly focused on psychosocial factors. Authors are claiming that better understanding of the neurobiology of violent criminal behavior and biological risk factors could improve forensic assessments.We will continue with a survey of 206 forensic psychologists where they tested the Filtering effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources.Forensic infography is a technique that facilitates the virtual reconstruction of different facts through computer science and digital image management. Chapter 4 presents a new method based on 3D reconstruction from images that demonstrates the utility and integration of close-range photogrammetry and computer vision as an efficient alternative to modelling complex objects and scenarios of forensic infography and as a result, each ocular inspection of a crime scene with any camera performed by the scientific police can be transformed into a scaled 3d model.We will use an example od South Africa in chapter 5 as the country that has one of the highest homicide and assault rates in the world and Forensic medicine is an intersection between medicine and the law which embraces a range of activities conducted to while chapter 6 deals with perceived obstacles and potential solutions in the evaluation of the probative value of forensic biology results, such as DNA profiles, when the competing propositions of interest relate to activities rather than the source of the recovered trace materials build an effective prosecution to assist courts in reaching the correct decision. The review in chapter 7 briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. Chapter 8 will follow with Forensic entomology which is based on the identification of necrophagous insects and the study of their biology. It is a useful tool to estimate scientifically the time elapsed since death. The use in legal veterinary medicine has been limited but appears to be gaining momentum. The information currently available in the literature from human death or abuse investigation is applicable to the veterinary arena.Forensic Dentistry has become an integral part of Forensic Sciences over the past 100 years and utilizes dental or orofacial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of many researchers that established the essential role that Forensic Dentistry plays, mainly in the identification of human remains. And this is the subject of chapter 9.Crime scene processing and forensic evidence has catapulted into modern day law enforcement. The value of fingerprint and DNA evidence is becoming incrementally more important in prosecutions. Law enforcement agencies across the nation have developed Crime Scene Units to keep up with the collection, preservation, and presentation of this valuable evidence. You can read about this in chapter 10. Chapter 11 provides a paradigm for the creation of a civilian review board. To illustrate this model, themes of a civilian board’s connection to the community, establishment of the board, and criminal psychological implications for the future of the selection and retention of police officers are discussed.Interesting subject of evidence provided by the geosciences that can be supportive in a judicial investigation is the subject of shapter 12. Although the CSI Effect suggests that the TV program and its spin-offs wildly exaggerate and glorify some forensic geosciences, burdening both the prosecution and the defense by creating greater expectations, currently, when the geosciences are involved in real forensic investigations, they are used to search and analyse buried targets following a precise protocol. Bite marks, defined as, a physical alteration in a medium caused by the contact of teeth, analysis can be used for comparison of a known person’s dentition to a patterned injury which appears consisistent with a bitemark. This type of comparison is used to confirm or eliminate the identity of a suspect in relation to the bitemark. You san read about it in chapter 13. Hair evidence is also one of the most common types of evidence encountered in criminal investigations. The present preliminary study in chapter 14 aimed to investigate the racial discrimination through hair morphology and professor JW Swindle , Criminal Defense Attorney in the west Georgia gives his view on foresic science in chapter 15.An examination experiment has been carried out to investigate whether fingerprint powder and lifting technique can recover and transfer latent fingerprints from human skin surfaces of dead bodies. For recovery Swedish Black powder and for transfer White Fingerprint Gelatine were used. More on this in chapter 16. Chapter 17 will focus on one aspect of the debate: the framing of conclusions involving elements of probability. In particular, we will examine the contentious issue of whether forensic scientists, when asked to provide evidence that will be used to evaluate various competing propositions about physical evidence, should consider the prior probabilities that those propositions are true.Human migration patterns are of interest to scientists representing many fields. Theories have been posited to explain modern human evolutionary expansion, the diversity of human culture, and the motivational factors underlying an individual or group decision to migrate. While the determination of individual attributes such as age, sex, and ancestry is often integral to migration studies, the positive identification of human remains is usually irrelevant. However, the positive identification of a deceased is paramount to a forensic investigation in which human remains have been recovered and must be identified. We will conclude our book with this subject.
Author Bio
Marko obtained his Master’s degree from University of Belgrade - Faculty of Law in 2014. He specialized in Criminal Law, Family Law and Environmental Law. He spent his Master year studying about international child abduction. He is currently employed in Ministry of Defense’s Legal Department.