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Inspection Guidelines for Wastewater Force Mains

James C. Thomson

320 pages
IWA Publishing
Available as an eBook only.

This report brings together a body of information on the characteristics of the wastewater force main network and the most common defects encountered. The technologies and methods used by utilities to inspect the force mains to identify and locate these defects are identified together with what are the perceived unmet needs. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-art in inspection technology for pressure pipelines. It also reviews the data management and processing and considers the application, effectiveness, and suitability of the technologies reviewed for use in force mains. The report also provides a risk-based failure evaluation. 

Innovative inspection technologies and methods for force main inspection are reviewed under five categories: 1) external inspection of ferrous force mains, 2) internal inspection of ferrous force mains, 3) inspection of asbestos cement force mains, 4) inspection of prestressed concrete cylinder pipe force mains, 5) inspection of plastic force mains. The study includes 10 case studies of actual inspections undertaken on pressure mains using technologies reviewed in the report. It proposes a structured approach to force main investigation driven by information need and cost-effectiveness within a condition assessment and asset assessment program. It provides guidelines for developing and implementing force main inspection programs.